The name Cluj probably comes from the Latin Castrum Clus, used for the first time in the 12th century to name the fortress of the medieval city from this place. The word Clus means "closed" in Latin and refers to the hills that surround the city. Another accepted theory is that of the origin of the name from the German Klaus or from the word Klause (meaning passages between mountains or stables, dam).
The city of Cluj Napoca is the heart of Cluj county, located in the center of Transylvania, in the central-western area of Romania. It is largely surrounded by: the Apuseni Mountains, the Someșan Plateau and the Transylvanian Plain, as a geographical unit is located in a depression. The city of Cluj Napoca is crossed by the river Someș, and the main waters of the county are Someșul Mic, Crișul Repede and Arieșul see what sights you can discover here.
The city of Cluj-Napoca is located in the central area of Transylvania, with an area of 179.5 km2. Located in the connection area between the Apuseni Mountains, Someșan Plateau and the Transylvanian Plain, the city is placed at the intersection of the parallel 46 ° 46 'N with the meridian 23 ° 36' E. It stretches on the valleys of the Someșul Mic and Nadeș rivers, and by some extensions on the valleys. secondary schools of Pope, Chinte, Borhanci and Popii.
To the south-east it occupies the space of the upper terrace on the northern slope of the Feleac hill, being surrounded on three sides by hills and hills with heights between 500 and 825 meters. To the south the city is guarded by Feleac Hill, with a maximum altitude of 825 m, at the top of Măgura Sălicei. To the east, the continuation of the city extends to Someșană Plain, and to the north of the city are the hills of Cluj, with pools such as Lombului Peak (684 m), Melcului Peak Summit (617 m), Techintau (633 m). To the west there is a series of hills, such as Dealul Hoia (506 m), Dealul Gârbăului (570 m), etc. Once outside the city, now in the interior, there is Calvaria Hill and Cetățuia Hill.
Through the municipality of Cluj-Napoca the rivers Someșul Mic and Nadeș, the streams Gypsy stream, the Morilor Canal, the Popești stream, the Nădășel stream, the Chintenilor stream, the Becaș stream, the Murătorii stream.
"Cluj-Napoca metropolitan area" is a territorial planning unit, composed of the communes of Apahida, Cojocna, Suatu, Căianu, Jucu, Pălatca, Cluj, Bonţida, Dăbâca, Bursa, Chinteni, Aluniș, Cornești, Panticeu, Vultureni, Aşchileu, Sân , Baciu, Gârbău, Aghireșu, Căpușu Mare, Gilău, Florești, Săvădisla, Ciurila, Feleacu, Aiton, Recea-Cristur and the municipality of Cluj-Napoca, the main development pole of this unit.
According to the 2011 census, the city has over 325,000 inhabitants, plus the large number of students who come annually, Cluj-Napoca representing one of the most important university and research centers in Romania.
The climate of Cluj is pleasant, of moderate continental type. It is influenced by the vicinity of the Apuseni Mountains, and autumn and winter and by the western Atlantic influences. The transition from winter to summer is usually done at the end of April, and from autumn to winter in November. Summers are hot, and winters are generally devoid of blight. The average annual air temperature is approx. 8.2 ° C, and the average annual rainfall reaches 663 mm.
The area around the city is largely covered with forests and grasses. Rare plants can be found such as the ladybug, the ladybug, the strawberry, the snake, etc. There are two known botanical reserves - Fânațele Cluj and Valea Morii Reservation.
Diversified with species such as wild boar, bumblebee, fox, rabbit, squirrel. In the Fânațele Cluj reservation there are living specimens of fennel viper, a rather rare species. A very rich flora can be found inside the city at the Botanical Garden, where they found shelter and some animal species.
The first documentary attestation of a settlement on the territory of Cluj today was made by the Greek geographer Claudius Ptolemy, who mentioned here one of the most important localities in the pre-Roman Dacia, named Napuca. Shortly after the Roman conquests of 101-102 and 105-106, Napuca was destroyed, to found a new urban settlement (civitas), Napoca, on the right bank of the Samus River. This settlement was founded in the year 124 AD, under the name of Municipium Aelium Hadrianum Napoca. After the withdrawal of the Roman administration from Dacia in 271 AD, the once flourishing urban life would cease. Cluj was documented for the first time in 1167, under the name "Castrum Clus".
Large groups of Saxon settlers settled in the fortress of Cluj during King Stephen the 5th of Hungary, after decimating the city's population during the Tatar attacks. The royal fortress Castrum Clus acquired an urban organization until the 15th century. The Roman-German emperor Sigismund of Luxembourg, who also became king of Hungary, granted Cluj the right of free city in 1405. Gradually Cluj became a center for the production and exchange of goods. About 5,000 people were engaged in agriculture, workshop work, but also with city-specific entertainment. At that time the population consisted of Saxons, Szeklers and to a small extent Romanians.
The role of the craft in the work of the city has increased, developing more craft guilds. This was also taken care of by Matei Corvin, king of Hungary between 1458 and 1495, born here. He granted 41 privileges to his hometown, defending it in conflicts with surrounding settlements. As for the population, he decided to grant some servants the right to settle in the city
The city of Cluj gained its European recognition until the 15th century. The specific European architecture, the late Gothic style, was found in the Roman-Catholic Church of Saint Michael, but also in many private houses. The people who were there were studying at famous schools in the West. Due to the high standard of living, the people of Cluj did not participate in the 1514 rebellion of Gheorghe Doja. A Saxon scholar born in Sibiu, Gáspár Heltai, contributed not only to the formation of culture, but also to the modernization of the city, which would maintain a printing house, a public bathroom, a paper mill and a beer. The Báthory dynasty also contributed to the economic or population growth, bringing the fortress to a rank that could only be compared with Brașov.
Baba Novac, an important host of Mihai Viteazul, was tried and burned alive in the city. The founder of the first union of Romanians, Mihai Voda dined for the last time in Cluj, after which he was killed by General Basta's order at the Turzii Plain.
Gabriel Bethlen, prince of Transylvania became the protector of the city and helped to complete it as an important fortress. After the conquest of Hungary by the Ottomans and its transformation into Pashto, Transylvania became autonomous principality under Ottoman suzerainty. At the end of the 17th century, however, it came under Austrian rule. After a forced agreement signed by Mihail Apafi, the city of Cluj was forced to house the troops of the Duke of Lorraine, providing them with a service of 100,000 florins. However, the soldiers also looted the city and demanded additional amounts from taxpayers.
With a population of 10,660 inhabitants, the fortress is transformed into the capital of Transylvania, which leads to its modernization, but also to the increase of the number of Romanian inhabitants. The important revolutionary movements from 1848 also include Cluj. Although an important revolutionary center, it had a contradictory status, due to its nobility. The doctrine included youth from colleges, academies and gyms, which dealt with its popularization. The city will host the talks between Nicolae Bălcescu and Cezar Bolliac, to unite the Romanian revolution with the Hungarian one. The defeat of the Hungarian revolution led to the establishment of the absolutist regime. The capital was moved to Sibiu, in order to have a greater Austrian influence on the authorities. Later, Cluj became one of the six Transylvanian military districts, administering a territory of 400,000 inhabitants. In the second half of the 19th century, the central building of the Franciscan Joseph University in Cluj was built. At the beginning of the 20th century, most of the buildings in the center were built or rebuilt. During this period, the building of the Unitarian High School, the Romanian Opera, the Palace of Justice, the City Hall, the Palace of Finance, etc. were erected.
Following the Ausgleich (compromise) by which Austro-Hungary was established in 1867, Cluj and Transylvania were reintegrated into the Kingdom of Hungary. During this period, the city was the second largest in the kingdom after Budapest and the residence of Cluj County.
After the end of the First World War, Transylvania became part of the Kingdom of Romania. The city of Cluj was still the residence of the county of Cluj (inter-war). In 1940, Cluj returned under the Hungarian crown through the Vienna Dictate. The Hungarian and German armed forces that controlled the city were rejected by the Romanian and Soviet troops in October 1944. By the 1947 Treaty of Paris, Cluj again entered the composition of Romania.
Cluj had a population of 16,763 Jewish inhabitants in 1941. After the occupation of Transylvania by the Horthist government, in 1944, Jews were taken to several ghettos (including the Iris Ghetto in Cluj) where they remained in inhuman conditions, lacking any facilities. The settlement of the ghetto was carried out by 6 deportations to Auschwitz during May-June 1944. Despite the harsh sanctions imposed by the Horthy administration, many Jews managed to escape, crossing the border into Romania, with the help of the peasants from the neighboring villages. From here they managed to leave Europe through the port of Constanța. Other Jews from European countries were helped to save and leave Europe by a Romanian-Jewish anti-Nazi group, supported by politicians from Cluj and Bucharest. The leader of this network was from 1943 to 1944, the writer Raoul Sorban who was subsequently awarded the title Right among peoples for his efforts.
After 1945 Cluj entered the period of communist rule, until December 1989. In 1974, the communist authorities changed the name of the city to Cluj-Napoca. After the revolution, the right-wing politician Gheorghe Funar, known for a series of public projects meant to hide the Hungarian cultural heritage for 12 years. In June 2004, Gheorghe Funar lost the local elections in favor of Emil Boc (Democratic Party), who restored the good interethnic relations between the communities of Cluj.
Find out what places or objectives you can visit in Cluj Napoca, and if you are hungry, choose from the list of restaurants in Cluj.